Do-It-Yourself Dog Training
Hydatidosis is a zoonotic infection caused
by cestode of the genus echinococcus. The definitive hosts
include dogs, wild dogs, foxes etc. in which
adult worms are present in the intestines.
More than 50,000 worms
may inhabit the duodenum and upper jejunum of infected dogs
and individual worms are said to disrupt the intestinal mucosa,
such massive infection are well tolerated by the definitive
host with no clinical signs. Intermediate hosts
include sheep, pigs, goats, cattle and humans in which metacestode
develop which are referred to as hydatid cysts.
especially children, acquire the diseases by ingestion of
echinococcus eggs which occurs by hand to
mouth transfer of eggs after contact with infected dogs but
may also result from ingestion of food water, soil or fomites
contaminated by infected dog faeces.
Four species of echinococcus
are known to cause diseases in human beings E.granulosus,
and E.oligasthus. Both E.granulosus,
E.multilocularis tend to establish systematic cycles when
suitable prey predator relationships exit in the wild life
It is the widespread species causing cystic
hydatid disease. The eggs when ingested hatch
and release oncosphere. The larva grows slowly
and infrequently and exceeds more than a few centimeters in
diameter in slaughter sheep and cattle.
Cyst commonly develops in the liver 20%,
brain1%, peritoneal cavity 8%, Kidney-3%, bone marrow and
other organs 3%.The most causes an anaphylactic reaction
that may be fatal.
1. It is spread all over the world, the mediteranean
area, Middle East. Indian subcontient, Africa, Australia and
2. Depends largely on dissemination of eggs by tapeworms carrier
rural dogs and stray dogs
3. Inappropriate standard of meat inspection or practice of
private slaughtering without mandatory meat inspection favours
4. Pattern of transmission is dependent on the genetic variant
of E.granulosus, prevailing in an endemic area.
5. It is a epidemiological relevance that E.granulosus, has
a number of genetic variations adapted either in sheep or
cattle or horse or pigs (usually designated as dog-sheeep,dog-cattle,
dog- horse strains etc), individual strains may differ in
features of morphology, biology(fertile/sterile cyst ratio),
antigenic composition and infectivity to man.
6. Older animals are less susceptible to infection and develop
sterile cysts most frequently.
7. Eggs may survive over a year in the environment, but perish
rapidly if exposed to high temperature.
Control Of Hydatidosis
- Health education and personal hygiene.
- Limiting the population of stray dogs regimented antihelminthic.
medication (Praziquinatal during prepatent period every
6 months of potential infection on more practically every
- Prohibition of the feeding of uncooked offal to dogs
- Efficient meat inspection procedures with effective disposal
of rejected meat and offals.
- Avoid eating unwashed fruits and vegetables in are of
Foodstuffs can be rendered safe by heating
at 45c for 3 hours. Eggs survive storage in house hold deep
freezer but lose infectivity after 3 days of freezing at -80
Adopting these measures will not only control
the hydatidosis among our beloved pets but
also among us, the prestigious pet owners.