There are many speculations on the events that lead to emergence
of dogs from wolves. The social structure of the wolf is very
much similar to that of man and hence may be one of the reasons
for its domestication.
Wolves might have followed the hunters initially
to find game. This must have followed by sharing of killing
by the man with wolves and subsequent taming of the animal.
Or else early man may have taken young pups from the wolf's
den and hand raised it. In process they depend on man for
its food and hence subsequent domestication.
The similarity between dogs and wolves are
many including developmental factors like less developed masseter
and temporalis muscles, shorter muzzle, wider cranium, reduced
tympanic bullae, convex mandible, smaller eyes and teeth.
The differences between the two are mainly
in the reproductive cycles which are twice as that of wolves
in dogs. The age at sexual maturity is around
one year for dogs and two years for wolves. The reduced or
even absent scent gland in dorsal aspect of base of tail and
presence of first digit on the rear limbs are peculiarities
Around 12,000 years old remnants of dog
like creatures have been discovered in different sites like
Palegawra cave in Iraq and Ein mailaha in Israel. The presence
of dog mummies along side those of Pharaohs in Egyptian pyramids
was also noticed.
A single origin in Northern Euracia or emergence
in different location is still fierecely-debated topic. Latest
DNA evidence suggests at least two separate domestication
In the whole history of dogs there are more than 2000 breeds.
Most of them had perished during the long battle with time
and nature. It is estimated that currently 400 dog
breeds are in existence in this world. The grouping of
breeds varies according to the rules laid down by the various
The Federation of Cynologique Internationale
(FCI) has grouped the dogs into 10 classes, where as American
Kennel Club (AKC) and Kennel club of Britain (KC) have grouped
all breeds into six classes.
AKC has a seventh class
of miscellaneous breeds. The history of dogs
suggests that the first competitive dog show was held at Newcastle
in Britain in 1859. It was limited to pointers and setters.
Later the kennel club of Britain was established in 1873.